- The student must be within two semesters of completing the program, and have been
advanced to candidacy for the degree, The student and chair collaborate on potential
internship sites, and contact the agency.
- He/she should develop a list of objectives for the internship, which are submitted
to the chair of the committee. The student should discuss and develop these objectives
consulting the supervisor at the internship site. See the information under Chapter
1 below in developing the objectives.
- The student should develop a 1-2 page memo addressed to the Graduate Dean that clearly
indicates the name of the student, degree sought, the date of submission, and the
internship objectives. The objectives should be well-written. A concluding paragraph
should indicate the committee chair and the second committee member from the department
(selected by the student and the committee chair). This memo should be submitted
to the committee chair for approval before submission to the Graduate Dean. The memo,
including the objectives and the name of the second committee member, are sent to
the Graduate Dean for appointment of the third committee member.
- During the semester of the internship the student enrolls in CJ 699. The internship
is 240 hours. The student writes an internship paper consisting of the following chapters:
(1) introduction; (2) literature review; (3) description of the internship; (4) discussion
and conclusions; and (5) bibliography. Appendices are optional, but may be required
by the committee. Prior to enrolling and participating in the internship, the student
must have the permission of the committee chair. The chair may require that chapters
1 and 2 have been written and approved before enrolling. If the paper involves research
with human subjects, a proposal must be submitted to the Human Subjects Committee.
The cover sheet and format for this proposal can be obtained from the Graduate Coordinator.
- At the completion of the internship, the student writes the paper. The internship
supervisor at the site is asked to complete a form, which is sent to the graduate
office verifying that the 240 hours has been completed.
- When writing the paper, certain errors should be avoided. The student should consult
with the committee chair frequently. As each chapter is written, it should be given
to the committee chair. The chair can then be reading that chapter while the student
is writing the next chapter. Do not write the entire paper and then give it to the
chair. You should expect that the paper will be revised a number of times. In planning
for your degree, allow a minimum of two to three months for writing and revision of the paper. Do not expect to write it and have it approved
in two weeks; it never happens. Be sure that any portion of the paper given to any
committee members include page numbers. The faculty may return unread any materials
submitted without page numbers.
- During the semester the student anticipates completing the paper, he/she should enroll
for GR 699 Oral Exam.
- The paper should be in its final form and acceptable to the committee chairperson
at least two weeks prior to the date of the oral examination. The entire committee
needs a minimum of ten working days to review the paper prior to the oral exam.
- At the conclusion of the oral exam, the student is responsible for obtaining the committee
members’ signatures on the acceptance sheet. The acceptance sheet must be received
in the Graduate Office by the deadline stated in the schedule of classes for that
Content of the Internship Paper
This chapter should describe the objectives of the internship and their rationale.
The background of the agency of the internship site should also be discussed, and
how the objectives of the internship fit with the needs of the agency.
The objectives of the internship are important, and should take some thought. Some
of the ideas tried in the past include:
- The development of a jail training program for jail personnel.
- A study to determine whether parolees use prison vocational training after release
- A comparison of the organization and management of a state agency with a branch of
- An evaluation of an alcohol awareness program in a probation agency.
- The implementation and evaluation of a program in a halfway house.
- The functioning, communication patterns, and moral level in a mental health center
as related to a particular intervention strategy.
Most of the successful internships have had a specific goal in mind, such as an evaluation,
or a comparison, or a study. Internships with vague goals (i.e., "observe the functioning
of an agency") are more difficult to write.
Chapter 1 should thus discuss the objectives, how or why they were selected, a background
of the internship site, and how this internship will help the agency and the student.
This chapter should be at least 10-15 pages.
Chapter 2 is a literature review, a summary of the relevant theory and research related
to the research question. It should be a scholarly review of the literature, and should
meet certain requirements.
- Most of the citations should be recent (i.e., probably in the last five to seven years).
Earlier studies should only be cited if they appear to be classic, landmark studies.
When conducting the literature search, start with recent sources and work back.
- To review literature, the Criminal Justice Abstracts and computerized databases such
as SADIE, PSYCHLIT, and those on the Internet. Remember that you may have to try a
variety of key words to access works that are relevant. Committee members will be
most skeptical if they are told that there is not research on the topic. If the journal
or book is not in our library, and you think it is important, you can obtain a copy
for a small fee through interlibrary loan, which usually takes about two weeks.
- Literature reviews should cite works from journals, books, or government documents.
They should not extensively cite work from agency manuals, popular magazines, or
- A quick way to locate sources is to obtain a recent textbook on the topic, which will
often summarize the research and provide references in the footnotes. Of course, this
will not provide the most recent information, as there is publication lag. Recent
journal articles will often have a summary of research in the introduction section.
- Students frequently want to know how many sources they should have. A thorough review
of literature could easily have fifty or more. For purposes of the internship paper,
a minimum of twenty-five is expected. Ordinarily, most of these sources would be scholarly
- When reviewing the literature, organize the articles under subheadings (i.e., if one
were reviewing alternatives to juvenile institutionalization, one might have subheadings
under "history of institution" "problems of institutions" "de-institutionalization"
and diversion movements" "alternatives" "evaluation of alternatives").
Be sure to summarize the review. It is desirable to include a discussion section at
the end of the literature review, in which the implications of the previous studies
are described, and the direction you will be taking in the third chapter is indicated.
This chapter should be a minimum of 15-20 pages. The review should be relevant to
APA style should be used, such as: Smith (1999) stated that...
Several studies have found that halfway houses are less expensive than traditional
incarceration (Smith & Jones, 1997; Black, 1995; Jones, Smith & Dexter, 1998).
This chapter is a description of the internship. It can be relatively brief. Do not
include such matters as when you went to lunch. The committee will assume that you
ate, slept, etc., during those three weeks. You do not need to log activities by the
hour, but rather by the day. There should be an indication of the amount and time
spent at each activity, the sequence of each activity, and the nature of the activities
themselves. It should include descriptions of relevant events and reactions to those
events. If results from a study were obtained, they should be included in this chapter.
This chapter involves discussion and conclusions. It should generally be seen as the
most difficult chapter to write. This chapter should discuss how the objectives were
met. If results were obtained, they should be described and analyzed. What do they
mean? The chapter should discuss what was observed in the internship, and what the
writer concluded from those observations. If a comparison of two agencies was to be
made, they should be compared and contrasted (i.e., how they are alike and different).
It should also tie observations or results and conclusions to what was found in the
literature review in chapter 2. Were the observations and conclusions similar to those
in the literature? Were they different, and if so, how? How is the agency typical
and/or different from other similar agencies described in the literature?
The following questions should also be addressed:
- What did you learn from the internship?
- What implications does this have—for the agency, the field, etc.?
- What overall conclusions and recommendations would you make for the agency, in light
of your observations?
Finally, there should be an overall summarization. The chapter should be a minimum
of 12-15 pages.
The bibliography should follow APA style. All studies cited in the text must appear
in the bibliography. All references in the bibliography should be cited in the text.