Below is the most basic format for a book. List the author’s name as written on the title page. If multiple authors or editors are listed, separate with commas and place an “and” before the final author or editor (Last, First, and First Last). Only the first name is reversed, the rest are written normally.
Author Last, First. Title of Book. City: Publisher, Year. Medium.
Editor Last, First, ed. Title of Book. City: Publisher, Year. Medium.
If any publication or pagination information is missing, but can be found outside the book, brackets should be put around the information to indicate it was not from the book. If it cannot be found anywhere, use the following abbreviations:
n.p. — No place of publication
n.p. — No publisher given
n.d. — No date given
n. pag. — No pagination given
- Book by a Single Author
Haskins, Ekaterina V. Logos and Power in Isocrates and Aristotle. Columbia, South Carolina: University of South Carolina, 2004. Print.
- Two to Three Authors
Musa, Alexander, and Fernando Bueno. Mass Effect 3: Official Game Guide. United States: Prima Games, 2012. Print.
- Four or More Authors
There are two ways to list the names when there are four or more authors. List the first followed by et al. or all the names in order.
Reese, Jane B., et al. Campbell Biology. 9th ed. Boston: Pearson Benjamin Cummings, 2008. Print.
Reese, Jane B., Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, and Robert B. Jackson. Campbell Biology. 9th ed. Boston: Pearson Benjamin Cummings, 2008. Print.
- E-Book Not from a Website
Bronte, Charlotte. Jane Eyre: An Autobiography. London: Service & Paton, 1897. Amazon Digital Services. Kindle e-book. 10 June 2013.
- Book Retrieved from a Website or Database
Carroll, Lewis. Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland. New York: Sam’L Gabriel Sons, 1916. Project Gutenberg. Web. 10 June 2013.
- Book Found on Google Book Search
Finnegan, Ruth. Oral Literature in Africa. Cambridge: Open Book, 2012. Google Book Search. Web. 6 June 2013.
- Two or More Books by the Same Author
If you have two or more books by the same author, list the first one like normal. The second one will have three hyphens and a period in place of the author.
Booth, Wayne C. “From Modern Dogma and the Rhetoric of Assent.” The Rhetorical Tradition: Readings from Classical Times to the Present. Ed. Patricia Bizzell and Bruce Herzberg. 2nd ed. New York: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2000. Print.
---. The Rhetoric of Fiction. 2nd ed. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1983. Print.
- A Book by a Corporate Author
Do not abbreviate the author name.
American Medical Association. Complete Medical Encyclopedia. New York: Random, 2003. Print.
- An Anthology or Compilation
Gunn, James, and Matthew Candelaria, eds. Speculations on Speculation: Theories of Science Fiction. Lanham, Maryland: The Scarecrow, 2005. Print.
- A Work in an Anthology
Author of Work. “Title of Work.” Title of Anthology. Ed. Editor of Book. City: Publisher, Year. ##-##. Medium.
Gunn, James. "Toward a Definition of Science Fiction." Speculations on Speculation: Theories of Science Fiction. Eds. Gunn and Matthew Candelaria. Lanham, Maryland: The Scarecrow, 2005. 5-12. Print.
- A Scholarly Edition
Twain, Mark. Roughing It. Ed. Harriet E. Smith and Edgar M. Branch. Berkeley: U of California P, 1993. Print.
- A Translation
Dostoevsky, Feodor. Crime and Punishment. Trans. Jessie Coulson. Ed. George Gibian. New York: Norton, 1964. Print.
- Second or Subsequent Edition, Revised Edition, or Abridged Edition
For revised editions use “Rev.ed.” For abridged, “Abr. ed.”
Chaucer, Geoffrey. The Works of Geoffrey Chaucer. Ed. F.W. Robinson. 2nd ed. Boston: Houghton, 1957. Print.
- An Article in a Reference Book
Widely Used with Frequently Updated Editions:
"Ginsburg, Ruth Bader." Who's Who in America. 52nd ed. 1998. Print.
Specialized Book with Few Editions:
Alderton, David. “Catfish.” Encyclopedia of Aquarium and Pond Fish. London: Dorling Kindersley, 2008. Print.
- An Introduction, Preface, Foreword, or Afterword
Doctorow, E.L. Introduction. Sister Carrie. By Theodore Dreiser. New York: Bantam, 1982. v-xi. Print.
- An Anonymous Book
Encyclopedia of Virginia. New York: Somerset, 1993. Print.
- An Illustrated Book
If Citing Primarily the Narrative:
Gaiman, Neil. Stardust: Being a Romance within the Realms of Faerie. Illus. Charles Vess. New York: Vertigo, 1999. Print.
If Citing Primarily the Illustrations:
Vess, Charles, illus. Stardust: Being a Romance within the Realms of Faerie. By Neil Gaiman. New York: Vertigo, 1999. Print.
- A Graphic Narrative (Novel)
If it is by a single person, cite it like a normal book or multivolume book. If by collaboration, list the person most important to your research first, then his role. The rest of the contributors are listed after the title of the work in the order they appear.
Willingham, Bill, writer. “Chapter One: Old Tales Revisited.” Penciled by Lan Medina. Inked by Steve Leialoha. Lettered by Todd Klein. Colored by Sheila van Valkenburgh. Separated by Zylenol. Cover art by James Jean, and Alex Maleev. Assistant Ed. Mariah Heuhner. Fables: Legends in Exile. Ed. Shelley Bond. New York: Veritgo, 2002.
- A Pamphlet
Treat this as you would a book, using as much information as the pamphlet provides.
Author. Title of Work. City: Publisher, Year. Medium.
London. New York: Trip Builder, 1996. Print.
- A Multivolume Work
If Using Multiple Volumes:
Specify which volume you are using in internal citations (Vol: pp) —(2: 234)
Dewey, John. John Dewey: The Later Works. Ed. Jo Ann Boydston. 10 vols. Carbondale, Illinois: Southern Illinois UP, 1980-1988. Print.
If Using Only One Volume:
Dewey, John. "Ethics." John Dewey: The Later Works. Ed. Jo Ann Boydston. Vol. 7.Carbondale, Illinois: Southern Illinois University Press, 1984. Print.
- A Book in a Series
The series name and number (if any) go at the end of the citation.
Neruda, Pablo. Canto General. Trans. Jack Schmitt. Berkeley: U of California P, 1991. Print. Latin Amer. Lit. and Culture 7.
- A Republished Book
Author Last, First. Title of Work. Year of original publication. City: Publisher, Year of new publication. Medium.
Atwood, Margaret. Surfacing. 1972. New York: Doubleday, 1998. Print.
- A Reprint of a Book With a New Title
Author Last, First. New Title of Work. City: Publisher, Year of new publication. Medium. Rpt. of Original Title of Work. Year of original publication.
- Previously Published Article Reprinted in an Anthology
If originally in a book:
Author of Work. “Title of Work.” Title of Original Book. City: Publisher, Year. Rpt. In New Title. Ed. Editor Name. City: Publisher, Year. xx-xx. Medium.
MacDonald, George "The Fantastic Imagination." A Dish of Orts. London: Edwin Dalton, 1908. Rpt. in Fantasist on Fantasy: A Collection of Critical Reflections by Eighteen Masters of the Art. Ed. Robert H. Boyer and Kenneth J. Zahorski. New York: Avon, 1984. 11-21. Print.
If originally in a scholarly journal:
Author of Work. “Title of work.” Original Journal Title. xx.x (Year): xx-xx. Rpt. In New Title. Ed. Editor Name. City: Publisher, Year. xx-xx. Medium.
- A Publisher's Imprint
Author Last, First. Title of Work. City: Imprint Name-Publisher, Year. Medium.
Lopate, Philip, ed. The Art of the Personal Essay: An Anthology from the Classical Era to the Present. New York: Anchor-Doubleday, 1994. Print.
- A Book with Multiple Publishers
Author Last, First. Title of Work. First city: First publisher; Second city: Second publisher; Third city: Third publisher, Year. Medium.
Wells, H.G. The Time Machine. London: Dent; Rutland: Tuttle, 1992. Print.
- A Book in a Language Other Than English
Translations of the title or city can be provided in brackets [ ] directly after the other language version (before the period) if necessary.
Eco, Umberto. Isola del giorno primo. Milano: Bpmpiani, 1994. Print.
- A Book Published Before 1900
You may omit publisher, placing a comma after the city instead of a colon.
Smith, Sir Thomas. De Republica Anglorum: The maner of governement or policie of the Realme of Englande. London, 1583. Print.